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  • 背景:#EDF0F5 #FAFBE6 #FFF2E2 #FDE6E0 #F3FFE1 #DAFAF3 #EAEAEF 默认  
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    文化丝绸之路

    [日期:2016-11-10] 来源:网络  作者:(英)彼得·弗兰科潘 [字体: ]

    作者:(英)彼得·弗兰科潘

           我们可以按照自己的方式随意塑造过去的历史,但古代世界远比我们想象的复杂,其中千丝万缕的联系更不为我们所知。如果把罗马看成是西欧文明的祖先,我们就忽略了一个事实:它与东方紧密相连并在许多方面受到东方的影响。古代社会确实是我们今日社会的原始模板:充满生机、竞争进取、成熟高效、精力旺盛。一个布满了城镇的区域带,形成了一条横跨亚洲的锁链。西方开始注视东方,东方开始注视西方。东西方共同增进了印度、波斯湾和红海之间的交流沟通——古丝绸之路充满了生机。

           连接太平洋、中亚、印度和波斯湾的通道上不只是货物在流通,还有思想。最重要的思想是和神有关的。智慧和宗教的交流在这片地区一直非常活跃,如今则变得更为复杂、更富竞争性。地方宗教和信仰体系开始与一些具有影响力的宇宙观相碰撞,形成了一个使各种思想得以相互借鉴、相互改善并最终焕然一新的大熔炉。

           自亚历山大大帝将希腊的观念文化带到东方之后,东方的思想很快就有了新的方向。佛教的种子在亚洲迅速播撒,特别是在阿育王的大力支持之下(他在公元前3世纪创建印度帝国之后,对屠杀场面深感悔悟,开始努力推广佛教)。这一时期的碑文证明,在叙利亚甚至更远的地方都有大量的佛教信徒在拜佛祈祷。 在

           公元1世纪前后,佛教发生过一次重大变革,即宗教开始影响信徒们的日常生活。在传统意义上,佛陀的教义直截了当,即遵循“八正道”,脱离苦海,到达涅槃。到达极乐世界的过程中不需要他人,也不需要任何物质世界的帮助。整个历程都是心灵的、超自然的、个体的。

           然而随着新观念的出现,佛教发生了剧变:这个原本不受外界影响、纯粹依靠自我发展的宗教,如今却借鉴了许多其他宗教的做法并建起更多圣地,使通往彻悟和佛国的路途更加令人神往。与佛陀相关的佛塔和寺庙被兴建起来,并成为人们朝拜的地点。同时,佛经也指导人们如何做才能使佛教的理念更真实、更具象。该时代的《妙法莲华经》就说道,向寺庙献花和敬香可以得到保佑;同样,雇用乐师“击鼓吹角贝,箫笛琴箜篌,琵琶铙铜钹”也有助于朝拜者证得佛果。信徒们力求使佛教看得见、摸得着,以便使它在越来越嘈杂的宗教环境中更具有竞争力。

           另一种新观念是捐赠,特别是捐赠给那些沿印度到中亚纷纷兴起的新寺院。捐钱、捐珠宝、捐其他礼品等行为成为常规,因为慷慨施舍被认为有助于“脱离苦海”。《妙法莲华经》和当时的其他经文里甚至还罗列出哪些珍贵的物品可以被用来捐赠:珍珠、水晶、黄金、白银、青金石、珊瑚、钻石,这些都是最受欢迎的礼物。

           在从塔吉克斯坦至乌兹别克斯坦南部的谷地兴建的大型灌溉项目,同样见证了这一地区随着文化的活跃和商业交流的进行,逐渐开始出现的富庶和繁荣。随着越来越多的富豪精英来到当地,这里很快由僧侣聚集地变成了宗教活动中心,并吸引了大批学者——他们忙于编辑佛教经典,抄录并翻译成当地语言,以便让更多的人能接触到佛教教义。这也是宗教传播的方式之一:商业活动为信仰的扩散打开了大门。

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